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GPS Passive Microstrip Antennas

Microstrip patch antennas have several well-known advantages over other type of antennas: they are low profile, light weight, low cost, mechanically robust, and compatible with microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs).
Because of these merits, microstrip patch antennas have been utilised in many applications, such as mobile communication base stations and satellite communication systems.
However, it is important to note that there are some inherent disadvantages; they have small bandwidth (a single-patch microstrip antenna with a thin substrate, thickness less than 0.02 free-space wavelength, generally has a narrow bandwidth of less than 5%) and their pattern and radiation efficiency is heavily dependent on the size of the ground plane they are installed on.